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500 BC
AD 43
450
793
1485
1714
1837
1990+

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Types of Brick Bonds

Bonds are the horizontal patterns in which bricks are laid. There are five main types of bonds used in old buildings.


Old English Bond

The oldest pattern. Popular during the Tudor period.

 

 
Flemish Bond

This is one of the most attractive bonds and was particularly popular in Georgian buildings.

 

Stretcher Bond

Stretcher bond is the commonest bond used today and the least interesting to look at.


Old English Bond

This is the oldest brick pattern. Bricks were laid in alternate layers of headers and stretchers. A 'stretcher' is a brick laid so that its side is showing, a 'header' is a brick laid so that only its end is showing.


Old English bond

Old English bond


Old English bond


These bricks do not look old. They have not been weathered much.
It is possible that this wall was rebuilt.


Flemish Bond

To escape religious persecution, the Flemings settled in England during late Tudor times. They introduced Flemish bond: headers and stretchers laid alternatively in each layer of bricks.


Legame fiammingo

Handmade bricks
Handmade bricks have creases in them

Old bricks are uneven in terms of shape and thickness. Proir to the 1830s, all bricks were made by hand.


Legame fiammingo


Legame fiammingo

Machine made bricks
Machine made bricks are smooth and all the same size


Legame fiammingo

Diapering

When bricks of different colours are used to make a regular pattern, it is called diapering.


Legame fiammingo


Legame fiammingo


Legame fiammingo


Diamond Diapering


Stetcher Bond (Modern)

Cavity walls


Stretcher bond

The bricks below look as though they have been handmade.
Can you see the 'creases'? They look like smiles.


Stretcher bond


Stretcher bond

The purple colouring is caused by the brick being placed
near the furnace in the kiln.


Stretcher bond

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