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Numeri romani

 

The Roman Numeral, as far as we know, was the only written numbering system used in Ancient Rome and Europe until about 900 AD, when the Arabic Numbering System, which was originated by the Hindu's, came into use. (The Arabic Numbers are the ones we use today 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9).

Roman Numerals do not have a zero (0) and have 7 digits (I, V, X, L, C, M)

In our number system, Arabic numbers, we have ten digits (from 0-9) and we can make as big a number as we want with these.

What Roman Numerals mean

1 = I
2 = II
3 = III
4 = IV
5 = V
6 = VI
7 = VII
8 = VIII
9 = IX
10 = X
20 = XX
30 = XXX
40 = XL
50 = L
60 = LX
70 = LXX
80 = LXXX
90 = XC
100 = C
500 = D
1000 = M
2000 = MM

Counting with Roman Numerals

Roman Numerals were not just used for counting/ recording the number of objects but also the order of people sharing the same name.

Roman Numerals traditionally indicate the order of:

1. Rulers e.g.

Enrico I.
Enrico II
Enrico III
Enrico IV

Enrico V
Enrico VI
Enrico VII
Enrico VIII

2. Church leaders

Papa Benedetto XV
Papa Benedetto XVI

XV means 10+5 =15 thus, XV=15

The current (265th) pope is Pope Benedict XVI, who was elected April 19, 2005. He is the 16th pope to have the name Benedict.

Altri usi

Roman Numerals were also used for as dating on cornerstones of buildings showing origin of a building, statutes, headstones, books publication such as in chapter titles, volume of book series, appendices, numbers on clocks and so on.


Roman numbers on a clock face

What is odd about the Roman numbers used on a clock or watch?

If you look at four, it is IIII instead of IV.

On the most famous clocks in the world - usually called Big Ben in the Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster where the UK Houses of Parliament are located, the numerals are in lower case, gothic script and the 4 is depicted as iv.

Big Ben

Copyright at the end of programmes on the television

Roman numbers are used in the copyright year shown at the end of British TV programmes. You can see an example of the current copyright date written in this way on the web at the BBC sito.
per esempio

Arabo 1 5 10 50 100 500 1000
un romano I V X L C D M

1990 = MCMXC
1991 = MCMXCI
1992 = MCMXCII
1993 = MCMXCIII
1994 = MCMXCIV
1995 = MCMXCV
1996 = MCMXCVI
1997 = MCMXCVII
1998 = MCMXCVIII
1999 = MCMXCIX
2000 = MM
2001 = MMI
2002 = MMII
2003 = MMIII
2004 = MMIV
2005 = MMV
2006 = MMVI
2007 = MMVII
2008 = MMVIII
2009 = MMIX
2010 = MMX
2011 = MMXI

 
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